There is no single wartime document that spells out how many people were murdered.

With the last living survivors the precise understanding of the Holocaust, estimates of human losses may change.

Succeeding generations have striven to understand how such a horrific event as the Holocaust could have taken place.

The scale of ignorance about the Holocaust is shocking. White nationalists march in Charlottesville, Virginia, in 2017.

One in three people know little or nothing about the Holocaust and an average of 5% said they had never heard of it.

In France, 20% of those aged 18-34 said they had never heard of the Holocaust; in Austria, the figure was 12%. A survey in the US last year found that 9% of millennials said they had not heard or did not think they had heard, of the Holocaust.

Number of Deaths

Group Number of Deaths
Jews 6 million
Soviet civilians around 7 million (including 1.3 Soviet Jewish civilians, who are included in the 6 million figure for Jews)
Soviet prisoners of war around 3 million (including about 50,000 Jewish soldiers)
Non-Jewish Polish civilians around 1.8 million (including between 50,000 and 100,000 members of the Polish elites)
Serb civilians (on the territory of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina) 312,000
People with disabilities living in institutions up to 250,000
Roma (Gypsies) 196,000–220,000
Jehovah’s Witnesses around 1,900
Repeat criminal offenders and so-called asocials at least 70,000
German political opponents and resistance activists in Axis-occupied territory undetermined
Homosexuals hundreds, possibly thousands (possibly also counted in part under the 70,000 repeat criminal offenders and so-called asocials noted above)


Our responsibility to honour their experience, to educate the uninitiated grows ever greater if we are to ensure that Jews can live as safely as all other European citizens.

It is no wonder we see the rise Right-wing Parties.

We still have a long way to go to become an equitable and fair Europe that lives up to the values that it proclaims to the rest of the world.

Map showing rise of populist and nationalist parties in Europe