( A seven minute read, dedicated to my friend Bill)

As we rapidly move towards a human centric intelligent Society – a network of data, artificial intelligence that is mimicking the human brain on more and more levels, with the thinking being done for us by machine learning.

Intelligence is becoming more and more redundant, altering the structures of our societies.

Like ourselves deep learning Algorithms start out clueless, moving to a higher level, learning from mistakes.

As technology expands in its capabilities and applications we’ll be confronted with massive social change.

It will have sweeping implications for all our cultures far beyond a smart phone or a little cylinder that can order more cereal or play music on demand.

Luckily you don’t need much intelligence to know that AI is being developed because it can make big money, but there are going to be many unintended consequences to AI.

There will come a day when Governments will be consulting AI on the impact of certain policy decisions if it is not already happening.

The surprising thing about all this intelligence is, to this day how we exactly define intelligence is still debatable.

It is difficult to argue that there is an objective sense in which one definition could be considered to be the correct one.

I have always held that Intelligence is found in the bottom of a bottle of Whiskey.

Nasa could save themselves yonks of dollars if they realised this.  Searching for Intelligent Life in the Universe ( when we don’t know what it is) seems somewhat pointless.

There is a wide range of conceptions of intelligence.

With the arrival of the Smartphone it now seems that we are all suffering from Trump dum-dum fever. This has led some to believe that intelligence may be approximately described by pressing the like button, but cannot be fully defined.

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The use of Autonomous Machines, further challenges our thinking as it raises questions as to the relationship between humans and machines. These questions may become increasingly prominent as technology advances and AI becomes an integral part of our surroundings.

The development of self-learning and independent computers raises challenging questions as to the future of the human race and the control, or lack of it, humans would exert over machines.

The detachment between the algorithm and its operators also reveals
a potential failure to deter as algorithms are not susceptible to traditional
deterrents, such as jail, monetary fines, and shaming. In a digitalised universe in which the law’s moral fabric is inapplicable, any game theories are constantly modelled until a rational and predictable outcome has been identified.

Sophisticated computers are now central to the competitiveness of present and future markets. With the accelerating development of AI, they are set to change the competitive landscape and the nature of competition restraints.

Computer algorithms are transformed the way we trade and will continue
to do so in an increasing pace. The creation of fast-moving digitalised markets
yields many benefits, yet it also changes the dynamics of competition and
may limit it. Given the transparent nature of these markets, algorithms may change the market dynamics and facilitate tacit collusion, higher prices, and greater wealth inequality.

In such a reality, firms may have a distinct incentive to shift pricing decisions from humans to algorithms.

Humans will more likely wash themselves of any moral concerns, in denying any relationship and responsibilities between them and the computer.

If we don’t have AI we will all end up as a bunch of Apple /Google buffoons.

Isn’t it about time we defined Intelligence.Afficher l'image d'origine

Here are a few current definitions.

Robert Sternberg. Sternberg’s (1985) theory of intelligence contains three subtheories, one about context, one about experience, and one about the cognitive components of information processing.

Howard Gardner.

Proposes a theory of multiple intelligences in which he claims there are seven relatively independent intelligences. Those intelligences are logical-mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal.

John Horn.

Along with his advisor, Raymond B. Cattell, has developed a theory of intelligence that specifies two broad factors, fluid abilities and crystallized abilities, along with numerous specific factors that support the general ones.

Fluid intelligence represents one’s ability to reason and solve problems in novel or unfamiliar situations. Crystallized intelligence, on the other hand, indicates the extent to which an individual has attained the knowledge of a culture.

The ability to use memory, knowledge, experience, understanding, reasoning, imagination and judgement in order to solve problems and adapt to new situations.

The capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.

Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought.

The ability to learn, understand and make judgments or have opinions that are based on reason.

Intelligence is a very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience.

The ability to learn facts and skills and apply them, especially when this ability is highly developed.

The ability to adapt effectively to the environment, either by making a change in oneself or by changing the environment or finding a new one . . . intelligence is not a single mental process, but rather a combination of many mental processes directed toward effective adaptation to the environment.

The general mental ability involved in calculating, reasoning, perceiving relationships and analogies, learning quickly, storing and retrieving information, using language fluently, classifying, generalizing, and adjusting to new situations.

The Capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activity; aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc.

The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : . . . the skilled use of reason (2) : the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one’s environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (as tests)

Intelligence is not a single, unitary ability, but rather a composite of several functions. The term denotes that combination of abilities required for survival and advancement within a particular culture.

In its lowest terms intelligence is present where the individual animal, or human being, is aware, however dimly, of the relevance of his behaviour to an objective.

Sensory capacity, capacity for perceptual recognition, quickness, range or flexibility or association, facility and imagination, span of attention, quickness or alertness in response.

So is there such a thing as universal intelligence.

If you look at the present state of our world, our home, it would be hard to agree that there is any Intelligence that is Universal other than madness. We now have a world that is running out of control largely ( but not solely) because of information technology and what AI is making possible.

But the ability to accurately assess the intelligence of other persons finds its place in everyday social interaction which is being replaced  and will have important evolutionary consequences.

I dont think so.

I believe that individuals’ intellectual performance varies depending on the situation in which they find themselves. Because of the vast array of different talents that people have there are different levels of intelligence and each individual has a different measure of intelligence.

‘Fluid intelligence is the capacity to logically solve problems independent of acquired knowledge.

Figurative intelligence describes the ability to handle objects such as images, patterns and shapes.

Are they independent of each other.

So if  there is no such thing as one intelligence what is the nature of intelligence.

What is needed for better understanding of the nature of intelligence is to give more attention to diverse approaches to intelligence. This is needed because, “in a field where so many issues are unresolved and so many questions unanswered, the confident tone that has characterized most of the debate on these topics is clearly out-of-place.

The brain as a major physical determinant of intelligence, without it we have artificial intelligence. The processing speed posing as the root for intelligence.

There are seven different areas of the brain.

Is the correlation between reaction time and IQ. The speed of information transmission.

Can the complexities of the human mind and its processes be reduced to a single factor, defined as intelligence?

Is there a single factor that determines intelligence, or are there multiple intelligences?

They are linguistic, musical, spatial, bodily, interpersonal, intrapersonal and logico-mathematical. Not forgetting other facets of intelligent behavior such as athleticism, musical talent, and social awareness.

Artificial intelligence is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is the science of automating intelligent behaviours currently achievable by humans.

The ability of a system to act appropriately in an uncertain environment, where appropriate action is that which increases the probability of success, and success is the achievement of behavioral subgoals that support the system’s ultimate goal.”

Any system . . . that generates adaptive behaviour to meet goals in a range of environments can be said to be intelligent.

Intelligent systems are expected to work, and work well, in many different environments. Their property of intelligence allows them to maximize the probability of success even if full knowledge of the situation is not available. Functioning of intelligent systems cannot be considered separately from the environment and the concrete situation including the goal but they do remove intelligent apart from biological reasons for intelligence.

Those abilities analytic or practical that the individual uses in order to survive and succeed in society. Threat Intelligence Takes Many Forms

One may find it hard to imagine life without the power of computers.Image result for pictures of intelligenceLet’s hope as we move towards this human centric intelligent society – a network of data, when everything is intelligence – nothing is intelligence, that the final machine is docile enough to tell us how to keep it under control. 

At least some aspects of our intellectual abilities depend heavily on our experiential histories.

“The only thing that exists is the present.
It has no beginning and no end.
The future is…

Gone are the days that Intelligence measures an agent’s ability to achieve goals in a wide range of environments.

All intelligent comments welcome.